Bulk Exadata Patching

After more than 11 year from the launch Oracle Exadata Machine has become popular on many companies across industries, making administrators, developers and final users almost unanimously satisfied about performance and availability.

But also, on Exadata there are cumbersome maintenance activities like patching.

Most of my Exadata customers have acquired 2 non-full RACKs, which makes the patching effort quite reasonable; but recently I started working on a project with multiple full RACKs, with tens of Storage Servers, Compute Nodes and hundreds of Virtual Machines…

A very challenging environment, especially when it came to patching…

Patching all the systems using the standard patchmgr utiliy was not acceptable, therefore I had to replace my standard patching procedure with a new one offering automation and scalability.

At this subject Oracle provides few handy options:

Patching Exadata Infrastructure

  • Storage Server Patching via http/https server: starting with Oracle Exadata System Software release 18.1.0.0.0, it is possible to patch the Storage Servers using an external http server hosting the new software image. The activitiy can be scheduled up to one week before the installation, allowing on each Cell the Management Server (MS) to start downloading and run pre-checks in advance. MS interrupts the software upgrade and generates an alert if the Cell does not comply with all pre-requisites.
  • Unbreakable Linux Network: ULN offers software patches, updates, and fixes for Oracle Linux and Oracle VM. The implementation of a local YUM repository leverages the patch automation of the bare metal OS or dom0/domU.
  • InfiniBand Switch: standard rolling upgrade patching procedure using patchmgr.

Patching Grid Infrastructure & RDBMS

  • GI & RDBMS: those components are patched using the standard Oracle tools common to all platforms, but the entire process has been parallalized using OS tools like dcli commands.

Overview Bulk Exadata Patching


Main Patching Commands

Storage Server – Scheduling Automated Storage Server Update via HTTP/HTTPS

On the Storage Cell set the local Apache location hosting the cell software

[root@efucndb01-a ~]# dcli -l root -g ~/cells cellcli -e 'alter softwareUpdate store=\"http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/cellsw\"'
efucncel01-a: Software Update successfully altered.
efucncel02-a: Software Update successfully altered.
efucncel03-a: Software Update successfully altered.
efucncel04-a: Software Update successfully altered.
efucncel05-a: Software Update successfully altered.
efucncel06-a: Software Update successfully altered.
efucncel07-a: Software Update successfully altered.
efucncel08-a: Software Update successfully altered.
efucncel09-a: Software Update successfully altered.
efucncel10-a: Software Update successfully altered.
efucncel11-a: Software Update successfully altered.
efucncel12-a: Software Update successfully altered.
efucncel13-a: Software Update successfully altered.
efucncel14-a: Software Update successfully altered.
[root@efucndb01-a ~]#

Schedule the update

[root@efucndb01-a ~]# dcli -l root -g ~/cells cellcli -e 'alter softwareUpdate time=\"03:20 AM WEDNESDAY\"'
efucncel01-a: Software update is scheduled to begin at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00.
efucncel02-a: Software update is scheduled to begin at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00.
efucncel03-a: Software update is scheduled to begin at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00.
efucncel04-a: Software update is scheduled to begin at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00.
efucncel05-a: Software update is scheduled to begin at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00.
efucncel06-a: Software update is scheduled to begin at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00.
efucncel07-a: Software update is scheduled to begin at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00.
efucncel08-a: Software update is scheduled to begin at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00.
efucncel09-a: Software update is scheduled to begin at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00.
efucncel10-a: Software update is scheduled to begin at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00.
efucncel11-a: Software update is scheduled to begin at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00.
efucncel12-a: Software update is scheduled to begin at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00.
efucncel13-a: Software update is scheduled to begin at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00.
efucncel14-a: Software update is scheduled to begin at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00.
[root@efucndb01-a ~]#

Verify the scheduled upgrade

[root@efucndb01-a ~]# dcli -l root -g ~/cells cellcli -e 'list softwareupdate detail'
efucncel01-a: name: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
efucncel01-a: status: PreReq OK. Ready to update at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel01-a: store: http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/cellsw
efucncel01-a: time: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel02-a: name: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
efucncel02-a: status: PreReq OK. Ready to update at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel02-a: store: http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/cellsw
efucncel02-a: time: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel03-a: name: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
efucncel03-a: status: PreReq OK. Ready to update at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel03-a: store: http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/cellsw
efucncel03-a: time: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel04-a: name: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
efucncel04-a: status: PreReq OK. Ready to update at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel04-a: store: http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/cellsw
efucncel04-a: time: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel05-a: name: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
efucncel05-a: status: PreReq OK. Ready to update at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel05-a: store: http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/cellsw
efucncel05-a: time: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel06-a: name: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
efucncel06-a: status: PreReq OK. Ready to update at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel06-a: store: http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/cellsw
efucncel06-a: time: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel07-a: name: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
efucncel07-a: status: PreReq OK. Ready to update at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel07-a: store: http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/cellsw
efucncel07-a: time: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel08-a: name: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
efucncel08-a: status: PreReq OK. Ready to update at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel08-a: store: http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/cellsw
efucncel08-a: time: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel09-a: name: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
efucncel09-a: status: PreReq OK. Ready to update at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel09-a: store: http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/cellsw
efucncel09-a: time: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel10-a: name: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
efucncel10-a: status: PreReq OK. Ready to update at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel10-a: store: http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/cellsw
efucncel10-a: time: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel11-a: name: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
efucncel11-a: status: PreReq OK. Ready to update at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel11-a: store: http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/cellsw
efucncel11-a: time: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel12-a: name: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
efucncel12-a: status: PreReq OK. Ready to update at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel12-a: store: http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/cellsw
efucncel12-a: time: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel13-a: name: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
efucncel13-a: status: PreReq OK. Ready to update at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel13-a: store: http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/cellsw
efucncel13-a: time: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel14-a: name: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
efucncel14-a: status: PreReq OK. Ready to update at: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
efucncel14-a: store: http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/cellsw
efucncel14-a: time: 2020-02-05T03:20:00+01:00
[root@efucndb01-a ~]#

Unbreakable Linux Network

dom0 checks

[root@efuconsole dbserver_patch_19.200120]# ./patchmgr -dbnodes ~/dom0 -precheck -yum_repo http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/yum/EngineeredSystems/exadata/dbserver/dom0/19.3.4.0.0/base/x86_64 -target_version 19.3.4.0.0.200130

NOTE patchmgr release: 19.200120 (always check MOS 1553103.1 for the latest release of dbserver.patch.zip)
NOTE
WARNING Do not interrupt the patchmgr session.
WARNING Do not resize the screen. It may disturb the screen layout.
WARNING Do not reboot database nodes during update or rollback.
WARNING Do not open logfiles in write mode and do not try to alter them.

2020-02-06 14:06:17 +0100 :Working: Verify SSH equivalence for the root user to node(s)
2020-02-06 14:06:19 +0100 :SUCCESS: Verify SSH equivalence for the root user to node(s)
2020-02-06 14:06:22 +0100 :Working: Initiate precheck on 8 node(s)
2020-02-06 14:07:36 +0100 :Working: Check free space on node(s)
2020-02-06 14:07:42 +0100 :SUCCESS: Check free space on node(s)
2020-02-06 14:08:07 +0100 :Working: dbnodeupdate.sh running a precheck on node(s).
2020-02-06 14:09:43 +0100 :SUCCESS: Initiate precheck on node(s).
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :SUCCESS: Completed run of command: ./patchmgr -dbnodes /root/dom0 -precheck -yum_repo http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/yum/EngineeredSystems/exadata/dbserver/dom0/19.3.4.0.0/base/x86_64 -target_version 19.3.4.0.0.200130
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : Precheck attempted on nodes in file /root/dom0: [efucndb01-a efucndb02-a efucndb03-a efucndb04-a efucndb05-a efucndb06-a efucndb07-a efucndb08-a]
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : Current image version on dbnode(s) is:
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : efucndb01-a: 19.2.6.0.0.190911.1
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : efucndb02-a: 19.2.6.0.0.190911.1
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : efucndb03-a: 19.2.6.0.0.190911.1
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : efucndb04-a: 19.2.6.0.0.190911.1
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : efucndb05-a: 19.2.6.0.0.190911.1
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : efucndb06-a: 19.2.6.0.0.190911.1
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : efucndb07-a: 19.2.6.0.0.190911.1
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : efucndb08-a: 19.2.6.0.0.190911.1
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : For details, check the following files in /EXAVMIMAGES/Patch/patchmgr_DBSERVER/dbserver_patch_19.200120:
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : - _dbnodeupdate.log
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : - patchmgr.log
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : - patchmgr.trc
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : Exit status:0
2020-02-06 14:09:45 +0100 :INFO : Exiting.
[root@efucndb01-a dbserver_patch_19.200120]#

dom0 upgrade

[root@efuconsole dbserver_patch_19.200120]# ./patchmgr -dbnodes ~/dom0 -upgrade -yum_repo http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/yum/EngineeredSystems/exadata/dbserver/dom0/19.3.4.0.0/base/x86_64 -target_version 19.3.4.0.0.200130

NOTE patchmgr release: 19.200120 (always check MOS 1553103.1 for the latest release of dbserver.patch.zip)
NOTE
NOTE Database nodes will reboot during the update process.
NOTE
WARNING Do not interrupt the patchmgr session.
WARNING Do not resize the screen. It may disturb the screen layout.
WARNING Do not reboot database nodes during update or rollback.
WARNING Do not open logfiles in write mode and do not try to alter them.

2020-02-06 14:29:11 +0100 :Working: Verify SSH equivalence for the root user to node(s)
2020-02-06 14:29:13 +0100 :SUCCESS: Verify SSH equivalence for the root user to node(s)
2020-02-06 14:29:15 +0100 :Working: Initiate prepare steps on node(s).
2020-02-06 14:29:17 +0100 :Working: Check free space on node(s)
2020-02-06 14:29:23 +0100 :SUCCESS: Check free space on node(s)
2020-02-06 14:29:59 +0100 :SUCCESS: Initiate prepare steps on node(s).
2020-02-06 14:29:59 +0100 :Working: Initiate update on 8 node(s).
2020-02-06 14:29:59 +0100 :Working: dbnodeupdate.sh running a backup on 8 node(s).
2020-02-06 14:36:16 +0100 :SUCCESS: dbnodeupdate.sh running a backup on 8 node(s).
2020-02-06 14:36:16 +0100 :Working: Initiate update on node(s)
2020-02-06 14:36:16 +0100 :Working: Get information about any required OS upgrades from node(s).
2020-02-06 14:36:28 +0100 :SUCCESS: Get information about any required OS upgrades from node(s).
2020-02-06 14:36:28 +0100 :Working: dbnodeupdate.sh running an update step on all nodes.
2020-02-06 14:56:38 +0100 :INFO : efucndb01-a is ready to reboot.
2020-02-06 14:56:38 +0100 :INFO : efucndb02-a is ready to reboot.
2020-02-06 14:56:38 +0100 :INFO : efucndb03-a is ready to reboot.
2020-02-06 14:56:38 +0100 :INFO : efucndb04-a is ready to reboot.
2020-02-06 14:56:38 +0100 :INFO : efucndb05-a is ready to reboot.
2020-02-06 14:56:38 +0100 :INFO : efucndb06-a is ready to reboot.
2020-02-06 14:56:38 +0100 :INFO : efucndb07-a is ready to reboot.
2020-02-06 14:56:38 +0100 :INFO : efucndb08-a is ready to reboot.
2020-02-06 14:56:39 +0100 :SUCCESS: dbnodeupdate.sh running an update step on all nodes.
2020-02-06 14:56:51 +0100 :Working: Initiate reboot on node(s)
2020-02-06 14:56:55 +0100 :SUCCESS: Initiate reboot on node(s)
2020-02-06 14:56:55 +0100 :Working: Waiting to ensure node(s) is down before reboot.
2020-02-06 14:58:20 +0100 :SUCCESS: Waiting to ensure node(s) is down before reboot.
2020-02-06 14:58:20 +0100 :Working: Waiting to ensure node(s) is up after reboot.
2020-02-06 15:04:23 +0100 :SUCCESS: Waiting to ensure node(s) is up after reboot.
2020-02-06 15:04:23 +0100 :Working: Waiting to connect to node(s) with SSH. During Linux upgrades this can take some time.
2020-02-06 15:27:46 +0100 :SUCCESS: Waiting to connect to node(s) with SSH. During Linux upgrades this can take some time.
2020-02-06 15:27:46 +0100 :Working: Wait for node(s) is ready for the completion step of update.
2020-02-06 15:31:29 +0100 :SUCCESS: Wait for node(s) is ready for the completion step of update.
2020-02-06 15:31:30 +0100 :Working: Initiate completion step from dbnodeupdate.sh on node(s)
2020-02-06 15:48:10 +0100 :SUCCESS: Initiate completion step from dbnodeupdate.sh on efucndb01-a
2020-02-06 15:48:14 +0100 :SUCCESS: Initiate completion step from dbnodeupdate.sh on efucndb02-a
2020-02-06 15:48:19 +0100 :SUCCESS: Initiate completion step from dbnodeupdate.sh on efucndb03-a
2020-02-06 15:48:30 +0100 :SUCCESS: Initiate completion step from dbnodeupdate.sh on efucndb04-a
2020-02-06 15:48:35 +0100 :SUCCESS: Initiate completion step from dbnodeupdate.sh on efucndb05-a
2020-02-06 15:48:46 +0100 :SUCCESS: Initiate completion step from dbnodeupdate.sh on efucndb06-a
2020-02-06 15:48:50 +0100 :SUCCESS: Initiate completion step from dbnodeupdate.sh on efucndb07-a
2020-02-06 15:49:02 +0100 :SUCCESS: Initiate completion step from dbnodeupdate.sh on efucndb08-a
2020-02-06 15:49:18 +0100 :SUCCESS: Initiate update on node(s).
2020-02-06 15:49:18 +0100 :SUCCESS: Initiate update on 0 node(s).
[INFO ] Collected dbnodeupdate diag in file: Diag_patchmgr_dbnode_upgrade_060220142909.tbz
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6381043 Feb 6 15:49 Diag_patchmgr_dbnode_upgrade_060220142909.tbz
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :SUCCESS: Completed run of command: ./patchmgr -dbnodes /root/dom0 -upgrade -yum_repo http://uln-yum.emilianofusaglia.net/yum/EngineeredSystems/exadata/dbserver/dom0/19.3.4.0.0/base/x86_64 -target_version 19.3.4.0.0.200130
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : Upgrade attempted on nodes in file /root/dom0: [efucndb01-a efucndb02-a efucndb03-a efucndb04-a efucndb05-a efucndb06-a efucndb07-a efucndb08-a]
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : Current image version on dbnode(s) is:
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : efucndb01-a: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : efucndb02-a: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : efucndb03-a: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : efucndb04-a: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : efucndb05-a: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : efucndb06-a: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : efucndb07-a: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : efucndb08-a: 19.3.4.0.0.200130
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : For details, check the following files in /EXAVMIMAGES/Patch/patchmgr_DBSERVER/dbserver_patch_19.200120:
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : - _dbnodeupdate.log
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : - patchmgr.log
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : - patchmgr.trc
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : Exit status:0
2020-02-06 15:49:22 +0100 :INFO : Exiting.

InfiniBand Switch

IB switch checks

[root@efucndb01-a patch_switch_19.3.4.0.0.200130]# ./patchmgr -ibswitches ~/ibs -upgrade -ibswitch_precheck
2020-02-10 07:57:44 +0100 :Working: Verify SSH equivalence for the root user to node(s)
2020-02-10 07:57:46 +0100 :SUCCESS: Verify SSH equivalence for the root user to node(s)
2020-02-10 07:57:47 +0100 1 of 1 :Working: Initiate pre-upgrade validation check on InfiniBand switch(es).
----- InfiniBand switch update process started 2020-02-10 07:57:48 +0100 -----
[NOTE ] Log file at /EXAVMIMAGES/Patch/IBs_19.3.4.0.0/patch_switch_19.3.4.0.0.200130/upgradeIBSwitch.log
[INFO ] List of InfiniBand switches for upgrade: ( efucnsw-iba01-a efucnsw-ibb01-a )
[SUCCESS ] Verifying Network connectivity to efucnsw-iba01-a
[SUCCESS ] Verifying Network connectivity to efucnsw-ibb01-a
[SUCCESS ] Validating verify-topology output
[INFO ] Master Subnet Manager is set to "efucnsw-iba01-a" in all Switches
[INFO ] ---------- Starting with InfiniBand Switch efucnsw-iba01-a
[WARNING ] Infiniband switch meets minimal version requirements, but downgrade is only available to 2.2.13-2 with the current package.
To downgrade to other versions:
Manually download the InfiniBand switch firmware package to the patch directory
Set export variable "EXADATA_IMAGE_IBSWITCH_DOWNGRADE_VERSION" to the appropriate version
Run patchmgr command to initiate downgrade.
[SUCCESS ] Verify SSH access to the patchmgr host efucndb01-a.emilianofusaglia.net from the InfiniBand Switch efucnsw-iba01-a.
[INFO ] Starting pre-update validation on efucnsw-iba01-a
[SUCCESS ] Verifying that /tmp has 150M in efucnsw-iba01-a, found 492M
[SUCCESS ] Verifying that / has 20M in efucnsw-iba01-a, found 28M
[SUCCESS ] NTP daemon is running on efucnsw-iba01-a.
[INFO ] Manually validate the following entries Date:(YYYY-aM-DD) 2020-02-10 Time:(HH:MM:SS) 07:58:05
[INFO ] Validating the current firmware on the InfiniBand Switch
[SUCCESS ] Firmware verification on InfiniBand switch efucnsw-iba01-a
[SUCCESS ] Verifying that the patchmgr host efucndb01-a.emilianofusaglia.net is recognized on the InfiniBand Switch efucnsw-iba01-a through getHostByName
[SUCCESS ] Execute plugin check for Patch Check Prereq on efucnsw-iba01-a
[INFO ] Finished pre-update validation on efucnsw-iba01-a
[SUCCESS ] Pre-update validation on efucnsw-iba01-a
[SUCCESS ] Prereq check on efucnsw-iba01-a
[INFO ] ---------- Starting with InfiniBand Switch efucnsw-ibb01-a
[WARNING ] Infiniband switch meets minimal version requirements, but downgrade is only available to 2.2.13-2 with the current package.
To downgrade to other versions:
Manually download the InfiniBand switch firmware package to the patch directory
Set export variable "EXADATA_IMAGE_IBSWITCH_DOWNGRADE_VERSION" to the appropriate version
Run patchmgr command to initiate downgrade.
[SUCCESS ] Verify SSH access to the patchmgr host efucndb01-a.emilianofusaglia.net from the InfiniBand Switch efucnsw-ibb01-a.
[INFO ] Starting pre-update validation on efucnsw-ibb01-a
[SUCCESS ] Verifying that /tmp has 150M in efucnsw-ibb01-a, found 492M
[SUCCESS ] Verifying that / has 20M in efucnsw-ibb01-a, found 28M
[SUCCESS ] NTP daemon is running on efucnsw-ibb01-a.
[INFO ] Manually validate the following entries Date:(YYYY-aM-DD) 2020-02-10 Time:(HH:MM:SS) 07:58:25
[INFO ] Validating the current firmware on the InfiniBand Switch
[SUCCESS ] Firmware verification on InfiniBand switch efucnsw-ibb01-a
[SUCCESS ] Verifying that the patchmgr host efucndb01-a.emilianofusaglia.net is recognized on the InfiniBand Switch efucnsw-ibb01-a through getHostByName
[SUCCESS ] Execute plugin check for Patch Check Prereq on efucnsw-ibb01-a
[INFO ] Finished pre-update validation on efucnsw-ibb01-a
[SUCCESS ] Pre-update validation on efucnsw-ibb01-a
[SUCCESS ] Prereq check on efucnsw-ibb01-a
[SUCCESS ] Overall status
----- InfiniBand switch update process ended 2020-02-10 07:58:42 +0100 -----
2020-02-10 07:58:42 +0100 1 of 1 :SUCCESS: Initiate pre-upgrade validation check on InfiniBand switch(es).
2020-02-10 07:58:42 +0100 :SUCCESS: Completed run of command: ./patchmgr -ibswitches /root/ibs -upgrade -ibswitch_precheck
2020-02-10 07:58:42 +0100 :INFO : upgrade attempted on nodes in file /root/ibs: [efucnsw-iba01-a efucnsw-ibb01-a]
2020-02-10 07:58:42 +0100 :INFO : For details, check the following files in /EXAVMIMAGES/Patch/IBs_19.3.4.0.0/patch_switch_19.3.4.0.0.200130:
2020-02-10 07:58:42 +0100 :INFO : - upgradeIBSwitch.log
2020-02-10 07:58:42 +0100 :INFO : - upgradeIBSwitch.trc
2020-02-10 07:58:42 +0100 :INFO : - patchmgr.stdout
2020-02-10 07:58:42 +0100 :INFO : - patchmgr.stderr
2020-02-10 07:58:42 +0100 :INFO : - patchmgr.log
2020-02-10 07:58:42 +0100 :INFO : - patchmgr.trc
2020-02-10 07:58:42 +0100 :INFO : Exit status:0
2020-02-10 07:58:42 +0100 :INFO : Exiting.
[root@efucndb01-a patch_switch_19.3.4.0.0.200130]#

IB switch upgrade

[root@efucndb01-a patch_switch_19.3.4.0.0.200130]# ./patchmgr -ibswitches ~/ibs -upgrade
2020-02-10 07:59:22 +0100 :Working: Verify SSH equivalence for the root user to node(s)
2020-02-10 07:59:24 +0100 :SUCCESS: Verify SSH equivalence for the root user to node(s)
2020-02-10 07:59:25 +0100 1 of 1 :Working: Initiate upgrade of InfiniBand switches to 2.2.14-1. Expect up to 40 minutes for each switch
----- InfiniBand switch update process started 2020-02-10 07:59:25 +0100 -----
[NOTE ] Log file at /EXAVMIMAGES/Patch/IBs_19.3.4.0.0/patch_switch_19.3.4.0.0.200130/upgradeIBSwitch.log
[INFO ] List of InfiniBand switches for upgrade: ( efucnsw-iba01-a efucnsw-ibb01-a )
[SUCCESS ] Verifying Network connectivity to efucnsw-iba01-a
[SUCCESS ] Verifying Network connectivity to efucnsw-ibb01-a
[SUCCESS ] Validating verify-topology output
[INFO ] Proceeding with upgrade of InfiniBand switches to version 2.2.14_1
[INFO ] Master Subnet Manager is set to "efucnsw-iba01-a" in all Switches
[INFO ] ---------- Starting with InfiniBand Switch efucnsw-iba01-a
[WARNING ] Infiniband switch meets minimal version requirements, but downgrade is only available to 2.2.13-2 with the current package.
To downgrade to other versions:
Manually download the InfiniBand switch firmware package to the patch directory
Set export variable "EXADATA_IMAGE_IBSWITCH_DOWNGRADE_VERSION" to the appropriate version
Run patchmgr command to initiate downgrade.
[SUCCESS ] Verify SSH access to the patchmgr host efucndb01-a.emilianofusaglia.net from the InfiniBand Switch efucnsw-iba01-a.
[INFO ] Starting pre-update validation on efucnsw-iba01-a
[SUCCESS ] Verifying that /tmp has 150M in efucnsw-iba01-a, found 492M
[SUCCESS ] Verifying that / has 20M in efucnsw-iba01-a, found 26M
[SUCCESS ] Service opensmd is running on InfiniBand Switch efucnsw-iba01-a
[SUCCESS ] NTP daemon is running on efucnsw-iba01-a.
[INFO ] Manually validate the following entries Date:(YYYY-aM-DD) 2020-02-10 Time:(HH:MM:SS) 07:59:41
[INFO ] Validating the current firmware on the InfiniBand Switch
[SUCCESS ] Firmware verification on InfiniBand switch efucnsw-iba01-a
[SUCCESS ] Verifying that the patchmgr host efucndb01-a.emilianofusaglia.net is recognized on the InfiniBand Switch efucnsw-iba01-a through getHostByName
[SUCCESS ] Execute plugin check for Patch Check Prereq on efucnsw-iba01-a
[INFO ] Finished pre-update validation on efucnsw-iba01-a
[SUCCESS ] Pre-update validation on efucnsw-iba01-a
[INFO ] Package will be downloaded at firmware update time via scp
[SUCCESS ] Execute plugin check for Patching on efucnsw-iba01-a
[INFO ] Starting upgrade on efucnsw-iba01-a to 2.2.14_1. Please give upto 15 mins for the process to complete. DO NOT INTERRUPT or HIT CTRL+C during the upgrade
[INFO ] Rebooting efucnsw-iba01-a to complete the firmware update. Wait for 15 minutes before continuing. DO NOT MANUALLY REBOOT THE INFINIBAND SWITCH
Connection to efucndb01-a closed by remote host.
Connection to efucndb01-a closed.
2020-02-10 08:27:49 +0100 :Working: Verify SSH equivalence for the root user to node(s)
2020-02-10 08:27:51 +0100 :SUCCESS: Verify SSH equivalence for the root user to node(s)
2020-02-10 08:27:52 +0100 1 of 1 :Working: Initiate upgrade of InfiniBand switches to 2.2.14-1. Expect up to 40 minutes for each switch
----- InfiniBand switch update process started 2020-02-10 08:27:52 +0100 -----
[NOTE ] Log file at /EXAVMIMAGES/Patch/IBs_19.3.4.0.0/patch_switch_19.3.4.0.0.200130/upgradeIBSwitch.log
[INFO ] List of InfiniBand switches for upgrade: ( efucnsw-iba01-a efucnsw-ibb01-a )
[SUCCESS ] Verifying Network connectivity to efucnsw-iba01-a
[SUCCESS ] Verifying Network connectivity to efucnsw-ibb01-a
[INFO ] InfiniBand switch efucnsw-iba01-a is already at target version.
[SUCCESS ] Validating verify-topology output
[INFO ] Proceeding with upgrade of InfiniBand switches to version 2.2.14_1
[INFO ] Master Subnet Manager is set to "efucnsw-ibb01-a" in all Switches
[INFO ] ---------- Starting with InfiniBand Switch efucnsw-ibb01-a
[WARNING ] Infiniband switch meets minimal version requirements, but downgrade is only available to 2.2.13-2 with the current package.
To downgrade to other versions:
Manually download the InfiniBand switch firmware package to the patch directory
Set export variable "EXADATA_IMAGE_IBSWITCH_DOWNGRADE_VERSION" to the appropriate version
Run patchmgr command to initiate downgrade.
[SUCCESS ] Verify SSH access to the patchmgr host efucndb01-a.emilianofusaglia.net from the InfiniBand Switch efucnsw-ibb01-a.
[INFO ] Starting pre-update validation on efucnsw-ibb01-a
[SUCCESS ] Verifying that /tmp has 150M in efucnsw-ibb01-a, found 492M
[SUCCESS ] Verifying that / has 20M in efucnsw-ibb01-a, found 26M
[SUCCESS ] Service opensmd is running on InfiniBand Switch efucnsw-ibb01-a
[SUCCESS ] NTP daemon is running on efucnsw-ibb01-a.
[INFO ] Manually validate the following entries Date:(YYYY-aM-DD) 2020-02-10 Time:(HH:MM:SS) 08:28:07
[INFO ] Validating the current firmware on the InfiniBand Switch
[SUCCESS ] Firmware verification on InfiniBand switch efucnsw-ibb01-a
[SUCCESS ] Verifying that the patchmgr host efucndb01-a.emilianofusaglia.net is recognized on the InfiniBand Switch efucnsw-ibb01-a through getHostByName
[SUCCESS ] Execute plugin check for Patch Check Prereq on efucnsw-ibb01-a
[INFO ] Finished pre-update validation on efucnsw-ibb01-a
[SUCCESS ] Pre-update validation on efucnsw-ibb01-a
[INFO ] Package will be downloaded at firmware update time via scp
[SUCCESS ] Execute plugin check for Patching on efucnsw-ibb01-a
[INFO ] Starting upgrade on efucnsw-ibb01-a to 2.2.14_1. Please give upto 15 mins for the process to complete. DO NOT INTERRUPT or HIT CTRL+C during the upgrade
[INFO ] Rebooting efucnsw-ibb01-a to complete the firmware update. Wait for 15 minutes before continuing. DO NOT MANUALLY REBOOT THE INFINIBAND SWITCH
Connection to efucndb01-a closed by remote host.
Connection to efucndb01-a closed.

Exadata How Safely Erase All Data

When the time arrives to decommission an environment with sesitive data, we are frequently confronted to the problem how to certify to our customer or management the erase of all data and logs.

On Exadata Machine starting from the software release 12.2.1.1.0, this problem has been elegantly solved by Oracle introducing a new utility called Secure Eraser; which securely erases data on hard drives, flash devices, internal USBs, and resets ILOM to factory default.

 

In earlier software versions, the Exadata Storage Software includes CellCli commands to securely erase the user data:

CellCLI> DROP GRIDDISK ALL FLASHDISK PREFIX=DATA, ERASE=7pass
CellCLI> DROP GRIDDISK ALL PREFIX=DATA, ERASE=3pass

and

CellCLI> DROP CELLDISK ALL FLASHDISK ERASE=7pass 
CellCLI> DROP CELL ERASE=3pass

Unfortunatly those commands only cover the user data stored on the Storage Cell, and none of them produces an official certificate with the summary of the actions taken to guarantee the wipe of the data. While all this is done by Secure Eraser on all Compute and Storage nodes, sanitizing on all type of devices: user data, OS logs and network configurations.

 

Depending from the Exadata model, a subset of all of available options to execute Secure Eraser is possible:

  • Automatic Secure Eraser Ethrough PXE Boot
  • Interactive Secure Eraser through PXE Boot
  • Interactive Secure Eraser through Network Boot
  • Interactive Secure Eraser through External USB

 


 

Recently I used Secure Eraser through External USB on one Exadata X7-2 Machine and here are reported the different steps.

 

Copy the Secure Eraser Diagnostic image from MOS 2180963.1 to a USB stick.

 # dd if=image_diagnostics_18.1.4.0.0_LINUX.X64_180125.3-1.x86_64.usb of=/dev/sdb

 

Boot the server using the USB device with the Secure Eraser Diagnostic image

Exa_BootList.jpg

 

After login, start the Secure Erase process

/usr/sbin/secureeraser --erase --all --flash_erasure_method=7pass --hdd_erasure_method=3pass --technician=Emiliano_Fusaglia --witness=Mario_Bros --output=/mnt/iso

 

 

At the end of the erase process a Data Erasure Certificate similar to the one on the example below will be available in TXT, HTML and PDF format.

Exa_SecureErase_Report


 

 

 

EXADATA: How to enable Flash Cache WriteBack on a running system

In a recent tuning activity it was necessary to change the Exadata Smart Flash Cache from “WriteThrough” to “WriteBack“. Because the system was used in a 24/7 environment we had to implement the change in a Rolling Upgrade Fashion.

Here below are described the different steps.

 

From one DB node using dcli check the currest status of the storage cells:

[root@efudbadm02 ~]# dcli -g ~/cell_group -l root cellcli -e "list cell attributes flashcachemode"
efuceladm01: WriteThrough
efuceladm02: WriteThrough
efuceladm03: WriteThrough
efuceladm04: WriteThrough
efuceladm05: WriteThrough
efuceladm06: WriteThrough
efuceladm07: WriteThrough
efuceladm08: WriteThrough
efuceladm09: WriteThrough
efuceladm10: WriteThrough
efuceladm11: WriteThrough

From one DB node using dcli check that the properties asmdeactivationoutcome and asmmodestatus of all griddisks are respectively “Yes” and “ONLINE” before continuing with the change.

[root@efudbadm02 ~]# dcli -g cell_group -l root cellcli -e list griddisk attributes asmdeactivationoutcome, asmmodestatus
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm01: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
efuceladm02: Yes ONLINE
...
..
.

From one DB node using dcli check that all flashcache modules are in “normal” state and no flash disk is in degraded or critical state.

[root@efudbadm02 ~]# dcli -g cell_group -l root cellcli -e list flashcache detail
efuceladm01: name: efuceladm01_FLASHCACHE
efuceladm01: cellDisk: FD_00_efuceladm01,FD_07_efuceladm01,FD_06_efuceladm01,FD_03_efuceladm01,FD_05_efuceladm01,FD_01_efuceladm01,FD_02_efuceladm01,FD_04_efuceladm01
efuceladm01: creationTime: 2013-06-18T15:21:13+02:00
efuceladm01: degradedCelldisks:
efuceladm01: effectiveCacheSize: 744.125G
efuceladm01: id: 35b61001-438f-4d66-8ce9-40704f758d3f
efuceladm01: size: 744.125G
efuceladm01: status: normal
efuceladm02: name: efuceladm02_FLASHCACHE
efuceladm02: cellDisk: FD_06_efuceladm02,FD_05_efuceladm02,FD_00_efuceladm02,FD_02_efuceladm02,FD_01_efuceladm02,FD_07_efuceladm02,FD_03_efuceladm02,FD_04_efuceladm02
efuceladm02: creationTime: 2013-06-18T15:21:12+02:00
efuceladm02: degradedCelldisks:
efuceladm02: effectiveCacheSize: 744.125G
efuceladm02: id: 2f7eedd6-cda2-496e-98ec-417b94fb8ee7
efuceladm02: size: 744.125G
efuceladm02: status: normal
efuceladm03: name: efuceladm03_FLASHCACHE
efuceladm03: cellDisk: FD_00_efuceladm03,FD_04_efuceladm03,FD_01_efuceladm03,FD_02_efuceladm03,FD_03_efuceladm03,FD_06_efuceladm03,FD_05_efuceladm03,FD_07_efuceladm03
efuceladm03: creationTime: 2013-06-18T15:21:10+02:00
efuceladm03: degradedCelldisks:
efuceladm03: effectiveCacheSize: 744.125G
efuceladm03: id: c271cdb8-dc70-4009-ba97-dfc4c26b00ef
efuceladm03: size: 744.125G
efuceladm03: status: normal
...
..
.

Logon on the first Cell Storage and using CellCli interface perform the following procedure to enable the WriteBack Flash Cache in a rolling upgrade fashion.

 

Drop the existing flash cache

CellCLI> drop flashcache
Flash cache efuceladm01_FLASHCACHE successfully dropped

Inactivate the griddisk on the cell

CellCLI> alter griddisk all inactive
GridDisk DATA_CD_00_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DATA_CD_01_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DATA_CD_02_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DATA_CD_03_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DATA_CD_04_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DATA_CD_05_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_02_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_03_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_04_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_05_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk RECO_CD_00_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk RECO_CD_01_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk RECO_CD_02_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk RECO_CD_03_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk RECO_CD_04_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk RECO_CD_05_efuceladm01 successfully altered

Shut down cellsrv service

CellCLI> alter cell shutdown services cellsrv

Stopping CELLSRV services...
The SHUTDOWN of CELLSRV services was successful.

Enable the Smart Flash Cache WriteBack

CellCLI> alter cell flashCacheMode=writeback
Cell efuceladm01 successfully altered

Restart the cellsrv service

CellCLI> alter cell startup services cellsrv

Starting CELLSRV services...
The STARTUP of CELLSRV services was successful.

Reactivate the griddisk on the cell

CellCLI> alter griddisk all active
GridDisk DATA_CD_00_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DATA_CD_01_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DATA_CD_02_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DATA_CD_03_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DATA_CD_04_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DATA_CD_05_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_02_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_03_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_04_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk DBFS_DG_CD_05_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk RECO_CD_00_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk RECO_CD_01_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk RECO_CD_02_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk RECO_CD_03_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk RECO_CD_04_efuceladm01 successfully altered
GridDisk RECO_CD_05_efuceladm01 successfully altered

Recreate the flash cache

CellCLI> create flashcache all
Flash cache efuceladm01_FLASHCACHE successfully created

 


Verify that the Smart Flash Cache WriteBackWriteBack option is enabled

[root@efuceladm01 ~]# cellcli -e list cell detail | grep flashCacheMode
 flashCacheMode: writeback

Before applying the change to the next Exadata Storage Server  wait that all griddisk are synronized and online.

[root@efuceladm01 ~]# cellcli -e list griddisk attributes name,asmmodestatus,asmdeactivationoutcome
 DATA_CD_00_efuceladm01 SYNCING Yes
 DATA_CD_01_efuceladm01 SYNCING Yes
 DATA_CD_02_efuceladm01 SYNCING Yes
 DATA_CD_03_efuceladm01 SYNCING Yes
 DATA_CD_04_efuceladm01 SYNCING Yes
 DATA_CD_05_efuceladm01 SYNCING Yes
 DBFS_DG_CD_02_efuceladm01 ONLINE Yes
 DBFS_DG_CD_03_efuceladm01 ONLINE Yes
 DBFS_DG_CD_04_efuceladm01 ONLINE Yes
 DBFS_DG_CD_05_efuceladm01 ONLINE Yes
 RECO_CD_00_efuceladm01 OFFLINE Yes
 RECO_CD_01_efuceladm01 OFFLINE Yes
 RECO_CD_02_efuceladm01 OFFLINE Yes
 RECO_CD_03_efuceladm01 OFFLINE Yes
 RECO_CD_04_efuceladm01 OFFLINE Yes
 RECO_CD_05_efuceladm01 OFFLINE Yes

Once the asmmodestatus is ONLINE on all griddisks it is safe to move to the next Storage Server.


 

At the end of the procedure all Storage Servers are configured with Smart Flash Cache WriteBach option:

[root@efudbadm02 ~]# dcli -g ~/cell_group -l root cellcli -e "list cell attributes flashcachemode"
efuceladm01: writeback
efuceladm02: writeback
efuceladm03: writeback
efuceladm04: writeback
efuceladm05: writeback
efuceladm06: writeback
efuceladm07: writeback
efuceladm08: writeback
efuceladm09: writeback
efuceladm10: writeback
efuceladm11: writeback