Exadata Storage Snapshots

This post describes how to implement Oracle Database Snapshot Technology on Exadata Machine.

Because Exadata Storage Cell Smart Features, Storage Indexes, IORM and Network Resource Manager work at level of ASM Volume Manager only, (and they don’t work on top of ACFS Cluster File System), the implementation of the snapshot technology is different compared to any other non-Exadata environment.

At this purpuse Oracle has developed a new type of ASM Disk Group called SPARSE Disk Group. It uses ASM SPARSE Grid Disk based on Thin Provisioning to save the database snapshot copies and the associated metadata, and it supports non-CDB and PDB snapshot copy.

The implementation requires the following minimal software versions :

  • Exadata Storage Software version 12.1.2.1.0.
  • Oracle Database version 12.1.0.2 with bundle patch 5.
One major restriction applies to Exadata Storage Sanpshot compared to ACFS;
the source database must be a shared copy open on read only and called Test Master. The Test Master Database can not be modified or deleted as long the latest child snapshot is in use.
This restriction exists because Exadata Snapshot technology uses “allocate on first write”, and not “copy on write” (like for ACFS), and the snapshot is per-database-datafile.
When a child snapshot issue a write, the write goes to a private copy of that block inside the snapshot, preserving the original block value which can be accessed by other child snapshots of the same Test Master.

How to Implement Exadata Storage Snapshots in a PDB Environment

Check the celldisks for available free space to allocate to a new SPARSE Disk Group

[root@strgceladm01 ~]# cellcli -e list celldisk attributes name,freespace
 CD_00_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 CD_01_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 CD_02_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 CD_03_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 CD_04_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 CD_05_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 CD_06_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 CD_07_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 CD_08_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 CD_09_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 CD_10_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 CD_11_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 FD_00_strgceladm01 0
 FD_01_strgceladm01 0
 FD_02_strgceladm01 0
 FD_03_strgceladm01 0
[root@strgceladm01 ~]#


[root@strgceladm02 ~]# cellcli -e list celldisk attributes name,freespace
 CD_00_strgceladm02 853.34375G
 CD_01_strgceladm02 853.34375G
 CD_02_strgceladm02 853.34375G
 CD_03_strgceladm02 853.34375G
 CD_04_strgceladm02 853.34375G
 CD_05_strgceladm02 853.34375G
 CD_06_strgceladm02 853.34375G
 CD_07_strgceladm02 853.34375G
 CD_08_strgceladm02 853.34375G
 CD_09_strgceladm02 853.34375G
 CD_10_strgceladm02 853.34375G
 CD_11_strgceladm02 853.34375G
 FD_00_strgceladm02 0
 FD_01_strgceladm02 0
 FD_02_strgceladm02 0
 FD_03_strgceladm02 0
[root@strgceladm02 ~]#


[root@strgceladm03 ~]# cellcli -e list celldisk attributes name,freespace
 CD_00_strgceladm03 853.34375G
 CD_01_strgceladm03 853.34375G
 CD_02_strgceladm03 853.34375G
 CD_03_strgceladm03 853.34375G
 CD_04_strgceladm03 853.34375G
 CD_05_strgceladm03 853.34375G
 CD_06_strgceladm03 853.34375G
 CD_07_strgceladm03 853.34375G
 CD_08_strgceladm03 853.34375G
 CD_09_strgceladm03 853.34375G
 CD_10_strgceladm03 853.34375G
 CD_11_strgceladm03 853.34375G
 FD_00_strgceladm03 0
 FD_01_strgceladm03 0
 FD_02_strgceladm03 0
 FD_03_strgceladm03 0
[root@strgceladm03 ~]#

For each Storage Cell Create a SPARSE Grid Disks as described below

[root@strgceladm01 ~]# cellcli -e CREATE GRIDDISK ALL PREFIX=SPARSE, sparse=true, SIZE=853.34375G
Cell disks were skipped because they had no freespace for grid disks: FD_00_strgceladm01, FD_01_strgceladm01, FD_02_strgceladm01, FD_03_strgceladm01.
GridDisk SPARSE_CD_00_strgceladm01 successfully created
GridDisk SPARSE_CD_01_strgceladm01 successfully created
GridDisk SPARSE_CD_02_strgceladm01 successfully created
GridDisk SPARSE_CD_03_strgceladm01 successfully created
GridDisk SPARSE_CD_04_strgceladm01 successfully created
GridDisk SPARSE_CD_05_strgceladm01 successfully created
GridDisk SPARSE_CD_06_strgceladm01 successfully created
GridDisk SPARSE_CD_07_strgceladm01 successfully created
GridDisk SPARSE_CD_08_strgceladm01 successfully created
GridDisk SPARSE_CD_09_strgceladm01 successfully created
GridDisk SPARSE_CD_10_strgceladm01 successfully created
GridDisk SPARSE_CD_11_strgceladm01 successfully created
[root@strgceladm01 ~]#

For each Storage Cell List all Grid Disks

[root@strgceladm01 ~]# cellcli -e list griddisk attributes name,size
 DATAC1_CD_00_strgceladm01 6.294586181640625T
 DATAC1_CD_01_strgceladm01 6.294586181640625T
 DATAC1_CD_02_strgceladm01 6.294586181640625T
 DATAC1_CD_03_strgceladm01 6.294586181640625T
 DATAC1_CD_04_strgceladm01 6.294586181640625T
 DATAC1_CD_05_strgceladm01 6.294586181640625T
 DATAC1_CD_06_strgceladm01 6.294586181640625T
 DATAC1_CD_07_strgceladm01 6.294586181640625T
 DATAC1_CD_08_strgceladm01 6.294586181640625T
 DATAC1_CD_09_strgceladm01 6.294586181640625T
 DATAC1_CD_10_strgceladm01 6.294586181640625T
 DATAC1_CD_11_strgceladm01 6.294586181640625T
 FGRID_FD_00_strgceladm01 2.0717315673828125T
 FGRID_FD_01_strgceladm01 2.0717315673828125T
 FGRID_FD_02_strgceladm01 2.0717315673828125T
 FGRID_FD_03_strgceladm01 2.0717315673828125T
 RECOC1_CD_00_strgceladm01 1.78143310546875T
 RECOC1_CD_01_strgceladm01 1.78143310546875T
 RECOC1_CD_02_strgceladm01 1.78143310546875T
 RECOC1_CD_03_strgceladm01 1.78143310546875T
 RECOC1_CD_04_strgceladm01 1.78143310546875T
 RECOC1_CD_05_strgceladm01 1.78143310546875T
 RECOC1_CD_06_strgceladm01 1.78143310546875T
 RECOC1_CD_07_strgceladm01 1.78143310546875T
 RECOC1_CD_08_strgceladm01 1.78143310546875T
 RECOC1_CD_09_strgceladm01 1.78143310546875T
 RECOC1_CD_10_strgceladm01 1.78143310546875T
 RECOC1_CD_11_strgceladm01 1.78143310546875T
 SPARSE_CD_00_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 SPARSE_CD_01_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 SPARSE_CD_02_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 SPARSE_CD_03_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 SPARSE_CD_04_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 SPARSE_CD_05_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 SPARSE_CD_06_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 SPARSE_CD_07_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 SPARSE_CD_08_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 SPARSE_CD_09_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 SPARSE_CD_10_strgceladm01 853.34375G
 SPARSE_CD_11_strgceladm01 853.34375G
[root@strgceladm01 ~]#

From ASM Instance Create a SPARSE Disk Group

SQL> CREATE DISKGROUP SPARSEC1 EXTERNAL REDUNDANCY DISK 'o/*/SPARSE_CD_*'
ATTRIBUTE
'compatible.asm' = '12.2.0.1',
'compatible.rdbms' = '12.2.0.1',
'cell.smart_scan_capable'='TRUE',
'cell.sparse_dg' = 'allsparse',
'AU_SIZE' = '4M';

Diskgroup created.

Set the following ASM attributes on the Disk Group hosting the Test Master Database

ALTER DISKGROUP DATAC1 SET ATTRIBUTE 'access_control.enabled' = 'true';

Grant access to the OS RDBMS user used to access to the Disk Group

ALTER DISKGROUP DATAC1 ADD USER 'oracle';

From an ASM Instance Set ownership permissions for every file that belongs solely to the PDB being snapped cloned as per example below

alter diskgroup DATAC1 set ownership owner='oracle' for file '+DATAC1/CDBT/<xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>/DATAFILE/system.xxx.xxxxxxx';
alter diskgroup DATAC1 set ownership owner='oracle' for file '+DATAC1/CDBT/<xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>/DATAFILE/sysaux.xxx.xxxxxxx';
alter diskgroup DATAC1 set ownership owner='oracle' for file '+DATAC1/CDBT/<xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>/DATAFILE/users.xxx.xxxxxxx';
...
..

Restart the Master Test PDB in Read Only

alter pluggable database PDBTESTMASTER close immediate instances=all;
alter pluggable database PDBTESTMASTER open read only;

Create the first PDB Snapshot Copy on Exadata SPARSE Disk Group

Create pluggable database PDBDEV01 from PDBTESTMASTER tempfile reuse create_file_dest='+SPARSEC1' snapshot copy;

Feedback of the Exadata Storage Snapshots

The ability to create storage efficient database copies in a few seconds, independently from the size of the Test Master is very useful for today IT departments; but such extreme velocity and flexibility is not entirely free. In fact performance tests on a I/O bound workload have highlighted important performance degradation. This reminds us that as defined by Oracle Corporation, the Snapshot Technology, included on Exadata Machine remains a non-production option.

The “Great” ODA overwhelming the Exadata

Introduction

This article try to explain the technical reasons of the Oracle Database Appliance success, a well-known appliance with whom Oracle targets small and medium businesses, or specific departments of big companies looking for privacy and isolation from the rest of the IT. Nowadays this small and relatively cheap appliance (around 65’000$ price list) has evolved a lot, the storage has reached an important capacity 128TB raw expansible to 256TB, and the two X5-2 servers are the same used on the database node of the Exadata machine. Many customers, while defining the new database architecture evaluate the pros and cons of acquiring an ODA compared to the smallest Exadata configuration (one eight of a Rack). If the customer is not looking for a system with extreme performance and horizontal scalability beyond the two X5-2 servers, the Oracle Database Appliance is frequently the retained option.

Some of the ODA major features are:

  • High Availability: no single point of failure on all hardware and software components.
  • Performance: each server is equipped with 2×18-core Intel Xeon and 256GB of RAM extensible up to 768GB, cluster communication over InfiniBand. The shared storage offers a multi-tiers configuration with HDDs at 7.2K rpm and two type of SSDs for frequently accessed data and for database redo logs.
  • Flexibility & Scalability: running RAC, RAC One node and Single Instance databases.
  • Virtualized configuration: designed for offering Solution in-a-box, with high available virtual machines.
  • Optimized licensing model: pay-as-you-grow model activating a crescendo number of CPU-cores on demand, with the Bare Metal configuration; or capping the resources combining Oracle VM with the Hard Partitioning setup.
  • Time-to-market: no-matter if the ODA has to be installed bare metal or virtualized, this is a standardized and automated process generally completed in one or two day of work.
  • Price: the ODA is very competitive when comparing the cost to an equivalent commodity architecture; which in addition, must be engineered, integrated and maintained by the customer.

 

At the time of the writing of this article, the latest hardware model is ODA X5-2 and 12.1.2.6.0 is the software version. This HW and SW combination offers unique features, few of them not even available on the Exadata machine, like the possibility to host databases and applications in one single box, or the possibility to rapidly and space efficiently clone an 11gR2 and 12c database using ACFS Snapshot.

 

 

ODA HW & SW Architecture

Oracle Database Appliance is composed by two X5-2 servers and a shared storage shelf, which optionally can be doubled. Each Server disposes of: two 18-core Intel Xeon E5-2699 v3; 256GB RAM (optionally upgradable to 768GB) and two 600GB 10k rpm internal disks in RAID 1 for OS and software binaries.

This appliance is equipped with redundant networking connectivity up to 10Gb, redundant SAS HBAs and Storage I/O modules, redundant InfiniBand interconnect for cluster communication enabling 40 Gb/second server-to-server communication.

The software components are all part of Oracle “Red Stack” with Oracle Linux 6 UEK or OVM 3, Grid Infrastructure 12c, Oracle RDBMS 12c & 11gR2 and Oracle Appliance Manager.

 

 

ODA Front view

Components number 1 & 2 are the X5-2 Servers. Components 3 & 4 are the Storage and the optionally Storage extension.

ODA_Front

 

ODA Rear view

Highlight of the multiple redundant connections, including InfiniBand for Oracle Clusterware, ASM and RAC communications. No single point of HW or SW failure.

ODA_Back

 

 

Storage Organization

With 16x8TB SAS HDDs a total raw space of 128TB is available on each storage self (64TB in configuration ASM double-mirrored and 42.7TB with ASM triple-mirrored). To offer better I/O performance without exploding the price, Oracle has implemented the following SSD devices: 4x400GB ASM double-mirrored, for frequently accessed data, and 4x200GB ASM triple-mirrored, for database redo logs.

As shown on the picture aside, each rotating disk has two slices, the external, and more performant partition assigned to the +DATA ASM disk group, and the internal one allocated to +RECO ASM disk group.

 

ODA_Disk

This storage optimization allows the ODA to achieve competitive I/O performance. In a production-like environment, using the three type of disks, as per ODA Database template odb-24 (https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E22693_01/doc.12/e55580/sizing.htm), Trivadis has measured 12k I/O per second and a throughput of 2300 MB/s with an average latency of 10ms. As per Oracle documentation, the maximum number of I/O per second of the rotating disks, with a single storage shelf is 3300; but this value increases significantly relocating the hottest data files to +FLASH disk group created on SSD devices.

 

ACFS becomes the default database storage of ODA

Starting from the ODA software version 12.1.0.2, any fresh installation enforces ASM Cluster File System (ACFS) as lonely type of database storage support, restricting the supported database versions to 11.2.0.4 and greater. In case of ODA upgrade from previous release, all pre-existing databases are not automatically migrated to ACFS, but Oracle provides a tool called acfs_mig.pl for executing this mandatory step on all Non-CDB databases of version >= 11.2.0.4.

Oracle has decided to promote ACFS as default database storage on ODA environment for the following reasons:

  • ACFS provides almost equivalent performance than Oracle ASM disk groups.
  • Additional functionalities on industry standard POSIX file system.
  • Database snapshot copy of PDBs, and NON-CDB of version 11.2.0.4 or greater.
  • Advanced functionality for general-purpose files such as replication, tagging, encryption, security, and auditing.

Database created on ACFS follows the same Oracle Managed Files (OMF) standard used by ASM.

As in the past, the database provisioning requires the utilization of the command line interface oakcli and the selection of a database template, which defines several characteristics including the amount of space to allocate on each file system. Container and Non-Container databases can coexist on the same Oracle Database Appliance.

The ACFS file systems are created during the database provisioning process on top of the ASM disk groups +DATA, +RECO, +REDO, and optionally +FLASH. The file systems have two possible setups, depending on the database type Container or Non-Container.

  • Container database: for each CDB the ODA database-provisioning job creates dedicated ACFS file systems with the following characteristics:
Disk Characteristics ASM Disk group ACFS Mount Point
SAS Disk external partition +DATA /u02/app/oracle/oradata/datc<db_unique_name>
SAS Disk internal partition +RECO /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/rcoc<db_unique_name>
SSD Triple-mirrored +REDO /u01/app/oracle/oradata/rdoc<db_unique_name>
SSD Double-mirrored +FLASH (*) /u02/app/oracle/oradata/flashdata

 

  • Non-Container database: in case of Non-CDB the ODA database-provisioning job creates or resizes the following shared ACFS file systems:
Disk Characteristics ASM Disk group ACFS Mount Point
SAS Disk external partition +DATA /u02/app/oracle/oradata/datastore
SAS Disk internal partition +RECO /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/datastore
SSD Triple-mirrored +REDO /u01/app/oracle/oradata/datastore
SSD Double-mirrored +FLASH (*) /u02/app/oracle/oradata/flashdata

(*) Optionally used by the databases as Smart Flash Cache (extension of the SGA buffer cache), or allocated to store the hottest data files leveraging the I/O performance of the SSD disks.

 

Oracle Database Appliance Bare Metal

The bare metal configuration has been available since version one of the appliance, and nowadays it remains the default option proposed by Oracle, which pre-install the OS Linux on any new system. Very simple and intuitive to install thanks to the pre-built bundle software, which automates most of the steps. At the end of the installation, the architecture is very similar to any other two node RAC setup based on commodity hardware; but even from an operation point of view there are great advantages, because the Oracle Appliance Manager framework simplifies and accelerates the execution of almost any system and database administrator task.

Here below is depicted the ODA architecture when the bare metal configuration is in use:

ODA_Bare_Metal

 

Oracle Database Appliance Virtualized

When the ODA is deployed with the virtualization, both servers run Oracle VM Server, also called Dom0. Each Dom0 hosts in a local dedicated repository the ODA Base (or Dom Base), a privileged virtual machine where it is installed the Appliance Manager, Grid Infrastructure and RDBMS binaries. The ODA Base takes advantage of the Xen PCI Pass-through technology to provide direct access to the ODA shared disks presented and managed by ASM. This configuration reduces the VM flexibility; in fact, no VM migration is allowed for the two ODA Base, but it guarantees almost no I/O penalty in term of performance. With the Dom Base setup, the basic installation is completed and it is possible to start provisioning databases using Oracle Appliance Manager.

At the same time, the administrator can create new-shared repositories hosted on ACFS and NFS exported to the hypervisor for hosting the application virtual machines. Those application virtual machines are also identified with the name of Domain U.  The Domain U and the templates can be stored on a local or shared Oracle VM Server repository, but to enable the functionality to migrate between the two Oracle VM Servers a shared repository on the ACFS file system should be used.

Even when the virtualization is in use, Oracle Appliance Manager is the only framework for system and database administration tasks like repository creation, import of template, deployment of virtual machine, network configuration, database provisioning and so on, relieving the administrator from all complexity.

The implementation of the Solution-in-a-box guarantees the maximum Return on Investment of the ODA; in fact, while restricting the virtual CPUs to license on the Dom Base it allows relocating spare resources to the application virtual machines as showed on the picture below.

ODA_Virtualized

 

 

ODA compared to Exadata Machine and Commodity Hardware

As described on the previous sections, Oracle Database Appliance offers unique features such as pay-as-you-grow, solution-in-a-box and so on, which can heavily influence the decision for a new database architecture. The aim of the table below is to list the main architecture characteristics to evaluate while defining a new database infrastructure, comparing the result between Oracle Database Appliance, Exadata Machine and a Commodity Architecture based on Intel Linux engineered to run RAC databases.

Table_Architectures

As shown by the different scores of the three architectures, each solution comes with points of strength and weakness; about the Oracle Database Appliance, it is evident that due to its characteristics, the smallest Oracle Engineered System remains a great option for small, medium database environments.

 

Conclusion

I hope this article keep the initial promise to explain the technical reasons of the Oracle Database Appliance success, and it has highlighted the great work done by Oracle, engineering this solution on the edge of the technology keeping the price under control.

One last summary of what in my opinion are the major benefits offered by the ODA:

  • Time-to-market: Thanks to automated processes and pre-build software images, the deployment phase is extremely rapid.
  • Simplicity: The use of standard software components, combined to the appliance orchestrator Oracle Appliance Manager makes the ODA very simple to operate.
  • Standardization & Automation: The Appliance Manager encapsulates and automatizes all repeatable and error-prone tasks like provisioning, decommissioning, patching and so on.
  • Vendor certified platform: Oracle validates and certifies the compatibility among all HW & SW components.
  • Evolution: Over the time, the ODA benefits of specific bug fixing and software evolution (introduced by Oracle though the quarterly patch sets); keeping the system on the edge for longer time when compared to a commodity architecture.

ASM Storage Reclamation Utility (ASRU) for HP 3PAR Thin Provisioning

 

ASM Storage Reclamation Utility (ASRU) reclaims storage from an ASM disk group that was previously allocated but is no longer in use. In example after decommissioning a database. This Perl script writes blocks of Zeros where space is currently unallocated; the Zeros blocks are interpreted by the 3PAR Storage Server, as physical space to reclaim.

The execution of the ASRU script consists in three sequential phases:

  1. Compaction the disks are logically resized keeping 25% of free space for future needs and without affecting the physical size of the disks. This operation triggers the ASM disk group rebalance which compact the data at the beginning of the disks.
  2. Deallocation this phase writes Zeros blocks above the current data High Water Mark, those blocks of Zeros are interpreted by the storage as space available for reclaiming.
  3. Expansion here the utility resize the logical disks to the original size, because data remains untouched no ASM rebalance operation is required.

 

How to use ASRU

ASM Disk Groups

 

ASMCMD> lsdg
State Type Rebal Sector Block AU Total_MB Free_MB Req_mir_free_MB Usable_file_MB Offline_disks Voting_files Name
MOUNTED NORMAL N 512 4096 4194304 3071904 1220008 511984 354012 0 N DATA/
MOUNTED NORMAL N 512 4096 4194304 7167776 3631252 511984 1559634 0 N FRA/
MOUNTED HIGH N 512 4096 1048576 41886 40621 20448 6405 0 Y OCRVOTING/
ASMCMD>

——————————————————————
Invoke the ASRU utility wirh the Grid Infrastructure owner
——————————————————————

[grid@xxxxxxxx space_reclaim]$ bash ASRU DATA
Checking the system ...done
Calculating the sizes of the disks ...done
Writing the data to a file ...done
Resizing the disks...done
Calculating the sizes of the disks ...done

/u01/GRID/11.2.0.4/perl/bin/perl -I /u01/GRID/11.2.0.4/perl/lib/5.10.0 /cloudfs/space_reclaim/zerofill 7 /dev/mapper/asm500GB_360002ac0000000000000000c0000964bp1 385789 511984 /dev/mapper/asm500GB_360002ac000000000000000150000964cp1 385841 511984 /dev/mapper/asm500GB_360002ac000000000000000160000964cp1 385813 511984 /dev/mapper/asm500GB_360002ac000000000000000110000964bp1 385869 511984 /dev/mapper/asm500GB_360002ac000000000000000120000964bp1 385789 511984 /dev/mapper/asm500GB_360002ac000000000000000140000964cp1 385789 511984
126171+0 records in
126171+0 records out
132299882496 bytes (132 GB) copied, 519.831 s, 255 MB/s
126195+0 records in
126195+0 records out
132325048320 bytes (132 GB) copied, 519.927 s, 255 MB/s
126195+0 records in
126195+0 records out
132325048320 bytes (132 GB) copied, 520.045 s, 254 MB/s
126143+0 records in
126143+0 records out
132270522368 bytes (132 GB) copied, 520.064 s, 254 MB/s
126115+0 records in
126115+0 records out
132241162240 bytes (132 GB) copied, 520.076 s, 254 MB/s
126195+0 records in
126195+0 records out
132325048320 bytes (132 GB) copied, 520.174 s, 254 MB/s

Calculating the sizes of the disks ...done
Resizing the disks...done
Calculating the sizes of the disks ...done
Dropping the file ...done

 

The second phase of the script called Deallocation uses dd to reset to zero the blocks beyond the HWM. One dd process per ASM Disk is started:

[grid@xxxxxxxx space_reclaim]$ top
top - 10:13:02 up 44 days, 16:16, 4 users, load average: 16.63, 16.45, 13.75
Tasks: 732 total, 6 running, 726 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie
Cpu(s): 2.8%us, 13.8%sy, 0.0%ni, 37.1%id, 43.9%wa, 0.0%hi, 2.4%si, 0.0%st
Mem: 131998748k total, 131419200k used, 579548k free, 42266420k buffers
Swap: 16777212k total, 0k used, 16777212k free, 3394532k cached
PID USER PR NI VIRT RES SHR S %CPU %MEM TIME+ COMMAND
 101 root 20 0 0 0 0 R 39.4 0.0 8:38.60 kswapd0
20332 grid 20 0 103m 1564 572 R 19.5 0.0 1:46.35 dd
20333 grid 20 0 103m 1568 572 D 18.2 0.0 1:44.93 dd
20325 grid 20 0 103m 1568 572 D 17.2 0.0 1:44.53 dd
20324 grid 20 0 103m 1568 572 R 15.6 0.0 1:20.63 dd
20328 grid 20 0 103m 1564 572 R 15.2 0.0 1:21.55 dd
20331 grid 20 0 103m 1568 572 D 14.6 0.0 1:21.42 dd
26113 oracle 20 0 60.2g 32m 26m S 14.6 0.0 0:00.75 oracle
20335 root 20 0 0 0 0 D 14.2 0.0 1:18.94 flush-252:24
20322 grid 20 0 103m 1568 572 D 13.9 0.0 1:21.51 dd
20342 root 20 0 0 0 0 D 13.2 0.0 1:16.61 flush-252:25
20338 root 20 0 0 0 0 R 12.9 0.0 1:17.42 flush-252:30
20336 root 20 0 0 0 0 D 10.9 0.0 1:00.66 flush-252:55
20339 root 20 0 0 0 0 D 10.9 0.0 0:57.79 flush-252:50
20340 root 20 0 0 0 0 D 10.3 0.0 0:58.42 flush-252:54
20337 root 20 0 0 0 0 D 9.6 0.0 0:58.24 flush-252:60
24409 root RT 0 889m 96m 57m S 5.3 0.1 2570:35 osysmond.bin
24861 root 0 -20 0 0 0 S 1.7 0.0 41:31.95 kworker/1:1H
21086 root 0 -20 0 0 0 S 1.3 0.0 36:24.40 kworker/7

[grid@xxxxxxxxxx~]$ ps -ef|grep 20332
grid 20332 20326 17 10:02 pts/0 00:01:16 /bin/dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/mapper/asm500GB_360002ac000000000000000110000964cp1 seek=315461 bs=1024k count=196523

[grid@xxxxxxxxxx ~]$ ps -ef|grep 20325
grid 20325 20319 17 10:02 pts/0 00:01:35 /bin/dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/mapper/asm500GB_360002ac0000000000000000d0000964cp1 seek=315309 bs=1024k count=196675


 

——————————————————————
ASM I/O Statistics  during the disk group rebalance
——————————————————————

ASMCMD> lsop
Group_Name Dsk_Num State Power EST_WORK EST_RATE EST_TIME
DATA REBAL WAIT 7
ASMCMD>
ASMCMD> iostat -et 5
Group_Name Dsk_Name Reads Writes Read_Err Write_Err Read_Time Write_Time
DATA S1_DATA01_FG1 23030185984 2082245521408 0 0 629.202365 561627.214525
DATA S1_DATA02_FG1 9678848 2002875955200 0 0 141.271598 556226.65866
DATA S1_DATA03_FG1 101520732160 2016216610304 0 0 3024.887841 561404.578818
DATA S2_DATA01_FG1 819643435008 2062069520896 0 0 50319.400536 563116.826573
DATA S2_DATA02_FG1 1126678040576 2045156313600 0 0 56108.943316 555738.806255
DATA S2_DATA03_FG1 947842624000 1994103517696 0 0 51845.856561 545466.151177
FRA S1_FRA01_FG1 9695232 305258886144 0 0 251.129038 5234.922326
FRA S1_FRA02_FG1 9691136 324037302272 0 0 234.499119 5478.064898
FRA S1_FRA03_FG1 9674752 287679095808 0 0 237.140794 4322.92991
FRA S1_FRA04_FG1 9678848 279486220800 0 0 563.687636 3845.515979
FRA S1_FRA05_FG1 9687040 287006669312 0 0 236.97403 4162.291019
FRA S1_FRA06_FG1 9695232 305493610496 0 0 260.062194 4776.712435
FRA S1_FRA07_FG1 9691648 286196798976 0 0 236.804526 14257.967546
FRA S2_FRA01_FG1 28695552 282395977216 0 0 565.469092 3874.206606
FRA S2_FRA02_FG1 63110656 290152312832 0 0 622.124042 14264.906378
FRA S2_FRA03_FG1 10750508032 318696439808 0 0 214.440821 5200.272304
FRA S2_FRA04_FG1 102140928 311658688512 0 0 624.488925 5098.68159
FRA S2_FRA05_FG1 55187456 298768577536 0 0 587.286013 4398.231978
FRA S2_FRA06_FG1 33064960 289082719232 0 0 21.587277 4597.368455
FRA S2_FRA07_FG1 28070912 284403925504 0 0 568.334218 4320.709945
OCRVOTING S1_OCRVOTING01_FG1 9666560 4096 0 0 292.504971 .000388
OCRVOTING S1_OCRVOTING02_FG2 9674752 0 0 0 14.6555 0
OCRVOTING S2_OCRVOTING01_FG1 10866688 4096 0 0 99.140306 .000388
OCRVOTING S2_OCRVOTING02_FG2 9695232 4096 0 0 110.684821 .000388
OCRVOTING S3_OCRVOTING01_FG1 9666560 0 0 0 73.171492 0


Group_Name Dsk_Name Reads Writes Read_Err Write_Err Read_Time Write_Time
DATA S1_DATA01_FG1 1329561.60 51507.20 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.01
DATA S1_DATA02_FG1 773324.80 417792.00 0.00 0.00 0.14 0.03
DATA S1_DATA03_FG1 1255014.40 11468.80 0.00 0.00 0.18 0.00
DATA S2_DATA01_FG1 0.00 5734.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
DATA S2_DATA02_FG1 32768.00 30208.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02
DATA S2_DATA03_FG1 0.00 416972.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
FRA S1_FRA01_FG1 0.00 6553.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S1_FRA02_FG1 3276.80 10649.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S1_FRA03_FG1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S1_FRA04_FG1 0.00 3276.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S1_FRA05_FG1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S1_FRA06_FG1 0.00 3276.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S1_FRA07_FG1 0.00 4812.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S2_FRA01_FG1 0.00 819.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S2_FRA02_FG1 0.00 3276.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S2_FRA03_FG1 0.00 6553.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S2_FRA04_FG1 0.00 6553.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S2_FRA05_FG1 0.00 3276.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S2_FRA06_FG1 0.00 4812.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S2_FRA07_FG1 0.00 3276.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
OCRVOTING S1_OCRVOTING01_FG1 0.00 819.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.60
OCRVOTING S1_OCRVOTING02_FG2 0.00 819.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.60
OCRVOTING S2_OCRVOTING01_FG1 0.00 819.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.60
OCRVOTING S2_OCRVOTING02_FG2 0.00 819.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.60
OCRVOTING S3_OCRVOTING01_FG1 0.00 819.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.0


Group_Name Dsk_Name Reads Writes Read_Err Write_Err Read_Time Write_Time
DATA S1_DATA01_FG1 77004.80 248217.60 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01
DATA S1_DATA02_FG1 6553.60 819.20 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.60
DATA S1_DATA03_FG1 83558.40 11468.80 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00
DATA S2_DATA01_FG1 0.00 235110.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
DATA S2_DATA02_FG1 36044.80 17203.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.60
DATA S2_DATA03_FG1 0.00 8192.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S1_FRA01_FG1 0.00 6553.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S1_FRA02_FG1 3276.80 11468.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
FRA S1_FRA03_FG1 0.00 233472.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
FRA S1_FRA04_FG1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S1_FRA05_FG1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S1_FRA06_FG1 0.00 6553.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S1_FRA07_FG1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S2_FRA01_FG1 0.00 1638.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
FRA S2_FRA02_FG1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S2_FRA03_FG1 0.00 9830.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S2_FRA04_FG1 0.00 6553.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S2_FRA05_FG1 0.00 6553.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S2_FRA06_FG1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
FRA S2_FRA07_FG1 0.00 233472.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
OCRVOTING S1_OCRVOTING01_FG1 0.00 1638.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.20
OCRVOTING S1_OCRVOTING02_FG2 0.00 1638.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.20
OCRVOTING S2_OCRVOTING01_FG1 0.00 1638.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.20
OCRVOTING S2_OCRVOTING02_FG2 0.00 1638.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.20
OCRVOTING S3_OCRVOTING01_FG1 0.00 1638.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01

——————————————————————
ASM Alert Log produced during the execution of the ASRU utility
——————————————————————

Mon Apr 04 09:11:39 2016
SQL> ALTER DISKGROUP DATA RESIZE DISK S2_DATA03_FG1 SIZE 385840M DISK S1_DATA01_FG1 SIZE 385788M DISK S2_DATA02_FG1 SIZE 385812M DISK S1_DATA02_FG1 SIZE 385868M DISK S2_DATA01_FG1 SIZE 385788M DISK S1_DATA03_FG1 SIZE 385788M REBALANCE WAIT/* ASRU */
NOTE: GroupBlock outside rolling migration privileged region
NOTE: requesting all-instance membership refresh for group=1
Mon Apr 04 09:12:11 2016
NOTE: membership refresh pending for group 1/0x48695261 (DATA)
Mon Apr 04 09:12:12 2016
GMON querying group 1 at 10 for pid 18, osid 25195
SUCCESS: refreshed membership for 1/0x48695261 (DATA)
NOTE: Attempting voting file refresh on diskgroup DATA
NOTE: Refresh completed on diskgroup DATA. No voting file found.
NOTE: starting rebalance of group 1/0x48695261 (DATA) at power 7
Starting background process ARB0
Mon Apr 04 09:12:15 2016
ARB0 started with pid=41, OS id=46711
NOTE: assigning ARB0 to group 1/0x48695261 (DATA) with 7 parallel I/Os
cellip.ora not found.
Mon Apr 04 09:13:38 2016
NOTE: stopping process ARB0
SUCCESS: rebalance completed for group 1/0x48695261 (DATA)
Mon Apr 04 09:13:39 2016
NOTE: GroupBlock outside rolling migration privileged region
NOTE: requesting all-instance membership refresh for group=1
Mon Apr 04 09:13:42 2016
GMON updating for reconfiguration, group 1 at 11 for pid 41, osid 47334
NOTE: group 1 PST updated.
SUCCESS: disk S1_DATA01_FG1 resized to 96447 AUs
SUCCESS: disk S1_DATA02_FG1 resized to 96467 AUs
SUCCESS: disk S2_DATA01_FG1 resized to 96447 AUs
SUCCESS: disk S2_DATA02_FG1 resized to 96453 AUs
SUCCESS: disk S2_DATA03_FG1 resized to 96460 AUs
SUCCESS: disk S1_DATA03_FG1 resized to 96447 AUs
NOTE: resizing header on grp 1 disk S1_DATA01_FG1
NOTE: resizing header on grp 1 disk S1_DATA02_FG1
NOTE: resizing header on grp 1 disk S2_DATA01_FG1
NOTE: resizing header on grp 1 disk S2_DATA02_FG1
NOTE: resizing header on grp 1 disk S2_DATA03_FG1
NOTE: resizing header on grp 1 disk S1_DATA03_FG1
NOTE: membership refresh pending for group 1/0x48695261 (DATA)
GMON querying group 1 at 12 for pid 18, osid 25195
SUCCESS: refreshed membership for 1/0x48695261 (DATA)
Mon Apr 04 09:13:48 2016
NOTE: Attempting voting file refresh on diskgroup DATA
NOTE: Refresh completed on diskgroup DATA. No voting file found.
Mon Apr 04 09:13:49 2016
SUCCESS: ALTER DISKGROUP DATA RESIZE DISK S2_DATA03_FG1 SIZE 385840M DISK S1_DATA01_FG1 SIZE 385788M DISK S2_DATA02_FG1 SIZE 385812M DISK S1_DATA02_FG1 SIZE 385868M DISK S2_DATA01_FG1 SIZE 385788M DISK S1_DATA03_FG1 SIZE 385788M REBALANCE WAIT/* ASRU */
Mon Apr 04 09:22:42 2016
SQL> ALTER DISKGROUP DATA RESIZE DISK S2_DATA03_FG1 SIZE 511984M DISK S1_DATA01_FG1 SIZE 511984M DISK S2_DATA02_FG1 SIZE 511984M DISK S1_DATA02_FG1 SIZE 511984M DISK S2_DATA01_FG1 SIZE 511984M DISK S1_DATA03_FG1 SIZE 511984M REBALANCE WAIT/* ASRU */
NOTE: GroupBlock outside rolling migration privileged region
NOTE: requesting all-instance membership refresh for group=1
NOTE: requesting all-instance disk validation for group=1
Mon Apr 04 09:22:46 2016
NOTE: disk validation pending for group 1/0x48695261 (DATA)
SUCCESS: validated disks for 1/0x48695261 (DATA)
Mon Apr 04 09:23:24 2016
NOTE: increased size in header on grp 1 disk S1_DATA01_FG1
NOTE: increased size in header on grp 1 disk S1_DATA02_FG1
NOTE: increased size in header on grp 1 disk S2_DATA01_FG1
NOTE: increased size in header on grp 1 disk S2_DATA02_FG1
NOTE: increased size in header on grp 1 disk S2_DATA03_FG1
NOTE: increased size in header on grp 1 disk S1_DATA03_FG1
Mon Apr 04 09:23:24 2016
NOTE: membership refresh pending for group 1/0x48695261 (DATA)
Mon Apr 04 09:23:26 2016
GMON querying group 1 at 13 for pid 18, osid 25195
SUCCESS: refreshed membership for 1/0x48695261 (DATA)
NOTE: starting rebalance of group 1/0x48695261 (DATA) at power 7
Starting background process ARB0
Mon Apr 04 09:23:26 2016
ARB0 started with pid=38, OS id=53105
NOTE: assigning ARB0 to group 1/0x48695261 (DATA) with 7 parallel I/Os
cellip.ora not found.
NOTE: Attempting voting file refresh on diskgroup DATA
NOTE: Refresh completed on diskgroup DATA. No voting file found.
Mon Apr 04 09:23:37 2016
NOTE: stopping process ARB0
SUCCESS: rebalance completed for group 1/0x48695261 (DATA)
Mon Apr 04 09:23:38 2016
NOTE: GroupBlock outside rolling migration privileged region
NOTE: requesting all-instance membership refresh for group=1
NOTE: membership refresh pending for group 1/0x48695261 (DATA)
Mon Apr 04 09:23:44 2016
GMON querying group 1 at 14 for pid 18, osid 25195
SUCCESS: refreshed membership for 1/0x48695261 (DATA)
Mon Apr 04 09:23:47 2016
NOTE: Attempting voting file refresh on diskgroup DATA
NOTE: Refresh completed on diskgroup DATA. No voting file found.
Mon Apr 04 09:23:48 2016
SUCCESS: ALTER DISKGROUP DATA RESIZE DISK S2_DATA03_FG1 SIZE 511984M DISK S1_DATA01_FG1 SIZE 511984M DISK S2_DATA02_FG1 SIZE 511984M DISK S1_DATA02_FG1 SIZE 511984M DISK S2_DATA01_FG1 SIZE 511984M DISK S1_DATA03_FG1 SIZE 511984M REBALANCE WAIT/* ASRU */
Mon Apr 04 09:23:50 2016
SQL> /* ASRU */alter diskgroup DATA drop file '+DATA/tpfile'
SUCCESS: /* ASRU */alter diskgroup DATA drop file '+DATA/tpfile'



Once the ASRU utility has completed, the Storage Administrator should invoke the Space Compact from the 3Par console.